This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.



The approach to investigations must always focus on making an accurate diagnosis, planning management and / or monitoring of disease.

It is important to plan investigations to gain the most information, minimise radiation exposure and need for sedation.

  • Radiographs or Computerised Tomography (CT) or Radionuclide Bone Scans result in radiation exposure.
  • Ultrasound scanning is increasingly used, with the benefits of no radiation exposure or sedation being required. However it is operator dependent. 
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging may require sedation, but also has the benefit of no radiation. (There can however be some risk in the use gadolinium contrast if that is required).
  • Densitometry is used to assess bone density. 
  • Echocardiography to assess for evidence of rheumatic heart disease, valvular lesions, aneurysms or myopathy. 


Site Statistics

To date (end of August 2021) PMM has >910,640 hits and >376,455 users from 221 countries!

Why register?

Some parts of PMM which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

find out more

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey