This website uses cookies to give you the best experience. By continuing to use this website you are consenting to cookies being used. You can delete and block cookies from within your browsers settings. For more information please refer to our privacy and cookie policy page.


Examples of abnormal pGALS

The photograph below shows a 'sausage toe' due to dactylitis (swelling of a digit beyond the margins of a joint, as seen in psoriatic arthritis).

The photograph below shows swollen knees, swollen ankles and thigh wasting in a child with polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

The photograph below shows finger contractures and restricted wrists in untreated polyarticular Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

The photograph below shows micrognathia (abnormally small mandible) in untreated systemic onset Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis with arthritis in the jaw.

The photograph below shows an abnormal left hindfoot with swelling due to tenosynovitis.

The photograph below shows several fingers with restriction of extension and a swollen right wrist with limited dorsiflexion.


 A video demonstration of pGALS and further detailed examination of relevant areas with pREMS is available - this child has a form of mucopolysaccharidosis (further information is available in the Investigations and Arthritis modules 

Site Statistics

To date (end of August 2021) PMM has >910,640 hits and >376,455 users from 221 countries!

Why register?

Some parts of PMM which involve pictures or videos of children, can only be viewed by registered users. Registering also allows you to bookmark favourite pages and track your viewing.

find out more

Short online courses

from Newcastle University, UK

e-resources from PMM

pmm for you

Please help us ensure pmm is as useful to you as possible by completing this short survey

complete survey